Immanuel Kant

Last time we talked about High German Idealism, I concentrated on giving an example of how it attempts to reconcile the physical portrait of the world with the world of experience and intuition. We constructed a loose picture of what I called The Dang-An-Sich, which was - roughly speaking - the entire universe. I used Kant's name, but it could also be called Schopenhauer's "World As Will" with no loss. I said that The Dang-An-Sich was "empty of content". There was no volumes and pressures, no fluids or gasses, no chairs or minds, etc. I showed where one could find proofs that, among other things, the basic thermodynamic functions such as volume and so forth could be shown to be "minimal statistics" of the behavior of The Dang-An-Sich. Therefore, they or functions of them will be in every living thing's description of the physical world. This is part of what is called in Schopenhauer's language "My Representation", which exists and is well formed even though The Dang-An-Sich cannot be directly probed. This gave us good examples of idealism and showed that their ideas were not empty of content.

Arthur Schopenhauer

Today I'm going to talk about some more philosophical concerns of Idealist philosophers. In particular, it can be shown exactly that Schopenhauer is correct when he says the universe as a whole, The Dang-An-Sich, must be purposeless in some sense. That is, The Dang-An-Sich has a special property that means that it doesn't care at all what overall state it is in beyond an important technical detail. This demonstration implies that any system that

*does*care about what state it is in, called by Husserl an "intentional system",cannot be the whole universe. Therefore, any subsystem of the Dang-An-Sich that has the property that it prefers some states to others must divide the universe into an inside and outside. This means that an idealist may not be "solipsistic", in a well defined sense.

W R Hamilton

The fundamental thing about the universe as a whole, The Dang-An-Sich, the thing that distinguishes it from any other object is this: it does not interact with anything outside of itself. I will talk about a universe that consists of many, many classical particles. Each particle has a position and momentum at a particular time, so that the entire system can be seen as a vector in a very high dimensional space. This space is called "phase space" and its points are the states of the system. Any particular fact about the system at a given time is a function of the position and momentum of (at most) every particle. There are few essential changes to this picture if we move to quantum mechanics, except the dimension of the space is infinite and the algebra of dealing with the functions is different.

The laws of physics do not depend upon time, which can be derived from the first fact. Any system where the laws of physics depend upon time can be expanded as a subsystem of one where the laws of physics do not, but the universe is not a subsystem of a larger system. Therefore, laws of physics of the universe are time independent. If the laws of physics of a system are time independent, the system described conserves energy. Therefore, the entire evolution of the system is given by the level curve of a so-called "Hamiltonian" function. These functions were named after their discoverer - the above pictured William Rowan Hamilton, based on his work with optics (and Lagrange's equally foundational work). I will throughout call an energy conserving system a Hamiltonian system.

But what is a Hamiltonian? Recall that we've just proved an essential physical fact about a system - it has constant energy. The system can change phase only by moving energy around - between its particles, for instance. The Hamiltonian function captures all of the flow of energy within a system. From a given state, the amount of energy it takes to get to a neighboring state by changing the position or momentum of one or another particle (including that - unique! - neighboring state which requires no energy change) gives the change in the Hamiltonian. As before, if energy is conserved, then the system moves on the level curves of the Hamiltonian.

The most simple Hamiltonian is that of a harmonic oscillator. The idea is of a particle bobbing up and down, as on a spring. As the velocity goes up, the particle gets a little farther (closer) from (to) equilibrium. This causes some of the energy to move from (to) the spring and restore . As a result, the level curves are simply ellipses. We can similarly find the results for pendulums and many other system. Most Hamiltonian systems cannot be solved exactly, but wander around state space almost randomly. Much like a fractal, such curves (nearly) fill the volume of state space.

There are many important facts about Hamiltonians. For instance, their level curves (constant energy trajectories) of a Hamiltonian never intersect, so that no two identical systems will be in the same state unless they also have the same energy. Classically, they can get as close as they like, however quantum mechanics forces a discrete separation. Energy is therefore a macroscopic "state function". There is no cheating here, since non-dependence of the laws of physics everywhere is not a local property, we shouldn't be surprised that one derives global properties from it.

Possibly the most important fact about Hamiltonian systems is what is called Liouville's Theorem (notice, again, there is a proof in the quantum mechanical case as well). This means that a cloud starting points of always has the same "volume" as each point moves on its own curve. Looking at the above example. If one draws a circle of starting points on the above graph and lets follows the lines, the ellipses will stretch and bend but never grow or shrink. This means that, in particular, it is never the case that the circle grows or shrinks. This is perfectly general.

Liouville's Theorem implies that there are no stable equilibria for a Hamiltonian system. In the oscillator example, the system stays still if the spring is left at rest, but every perturbation no matter how small means the system moves forever. Since the universe is a Hamiltonian system, it has no stable equilibrium states. This means that the evolution of the universe cannot be "toward" some final state. The Dang-An-sich, the universe in itself, has

*no*preferences among states. It just wanders around state space. It is not only empty not only of content, but it also has no goals.

Edmund Husserl

Edmund Husserl is often called the "father of phenomenology", supposed to be an exact philosophical science of all perception. Husserl was originally a mathematician trained by no less than Leopold Kronecker and Karl Weierstrass. Like many of Weierstrass's students, he was acutely sensitive to foundational issues in mathematics. This lead him into philosophy, where he was inspired by the philosopher and co-founder of psychology Franz Brentano (you might have heard of another one Brentano's students - Sigmund Freud). Brentano was a Catholic priest and took from the Scholastic's interpretation of Aristotle and Aquinas the idea that conscious is always directed at something. One can be conscious

__of__one's surroundings or

__of__one's goals or (most importantly for the Scholastics)

__of__God, but not conscious in general. As G K Chesterton said in

*Orthodoxy*"The worship of will is the negation of will ... because the essence of will is that it is particular.".

Husserl claimed to invent a psychological/philosophical/transcendental method of achieving absolute certainty by "bracketing" each little bit of sense-data and examining it, disregarding questions of its existence. Every time we bracket a blob of sense-data, either 1) we discover it's content is identical with something we already are certain exists or 2) our world grows by one object (More on this in a bit). Why? We may be absolutely certain that we exist and the existence of

__an__object toward which consciousness is directed toward. If it can be known that it is not an object that we were previously aware of, then it is a new object. Therefore, we can supposedly - very slowly! - build a build a world of absolute certainty.

There are flaws with this idea. A system which is directed may not be conscious. Alfred North Whitehead said that it was a profound mistake to think about what we are doing. Not only may the majority of the activities of a system that is conscious be only scarcely directed by consciousness, some of the activities we value most may be barely conscious. This was pointed out by Heidegger to Husserl, who ignored it. The "bracketing" process is vague on how we can learn enough about a piece of sense-data to absolutely know it consists of an object about which we do know absolutely know, kicking that whole important process over to science per se. It isn't clear whether bracketing is psychological or transcendental. Husserl himself changed his mind about this - initially he thought it was psychological, later transcendental. Husserl was a Christian (a Lutheran), but it isn't clear how to treat things we have no sense-data of - like the divine.

But one of the important assumptions, that the above concept of intentionality (interpreted in a highly minimalistic way) always implies that there is at least two "objects" is rigorously true. It follows from Liouville's theorem above. A system that prefers a given, for example, temperature, it must have an outside. This is not a trivial factoid - it is seen in real physics of Hamiltonian "thermostats". These can be checked theoretically and numerically. One can also consider "barostats", etc. that prefer states with particular values of other thermodynamic potentials.

Since human beings are - among other things - thermostats and barostats, they may not be closed systems. Therefore, one may not be The Dang-An-Sich by oneself. This shows that there should be no idealist solipsists.

I have stated all of this without reference to the higher level phenomena of actual experience. I left out the "minimal statistics" state functions (other than energy) such as pressure, volume, etc. These state functions can be described as functions on every possible state. We can then define a "macrostate" as the set of states such that all the state functions are the same for each state (or "microstate") in that set. Here the story actually gets a bit more complex. It turns out there are some macrostates that have a lot more microstates in them than others. Since "most" Hamiltonians wander around phase space almost at random, we can see that a Hamiltonian system will (probably) spend (almost) all of its time at the unique macrostate with maximum entropy. This can be made much more precise, of course.

It is not clear to me yet how this relates to the simple story of Schopenhauer and his followers (such as Heidegger and Sartre). It is philosophically important that The Dang-An-Sich has no direction, but it is not so clear that the non-intentionality of My Representation follows from any principle. I would like to take up this some time later, but no promises.

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